ABERASI KROMOSOM ADALAH PDF

Transcript of ABERASI KROMOSOM. Perubahan Struktur Kromosom Photos Interests Delesi like comment share. Delesi (Defisiensi) adalah. chromosonal aberration/abnormality abnormalitas kromosom; penyimpangan kromosom; aberasi kromosom. Creator: Hikmat. Language pair: ‍ইংরেজি থেকে. PENGARUH TEMBAGA KLORIDA (CuCl2) TERHADAP INDEKS MITOSIS DAN ABERASI KROMOSOM PADA AKAR KACANG BABI (Vicia faba L.).

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Instrumental neutron activation analysis INAA is a nuclear analytical technique for measuring the concentrations of large number of elements in a single sample and can be applied to the analysis of a wide variety of sample types. INAA involves exposing the sample along with prepared standards and appropriate quality control materials to a field of neutrons.

This exposure causes most of the elements within the sample to become radioactive. The energy of the radioactive emission allows identification of the element and the intensity of emission is proportional to the mass of that element.

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For additional information on SRMs see http: Standard Reference Materials for which elemental concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. However, RNAA involves chemical jromosom of the sample to isolate one or more elements from the sample matrix.

Isolation of the element is performed to eliminate any spectral interferences and to lower the background. RNAA has been used to analyze a wide variety of sample types. For example, RNAA has been used to determine krkmosom concentrations of tin and platinum in human liver tissue, and to determine cadmium and mercury in botanical reference materials. NAA is a non-destructive technique for specialized analysis of liquid and agerasi samples.

This is carried out by bombarding the sample with neutrons to produce unstable isotopes of the element, which are then quantified by measurement of their gamma emissions. NAA is currently used for the analysis of uranium in certain sample matrices, and for the analysis of organic halides.

There are alternate techniques available for these tests. Neutron Activation Analysis NAA is a nuclear process used for determining certain concentrations of elements in a vast amount of materials. NAA allows discrete sampling of elements as it disregards the chemical form of a sample, and focuses solely on its nucleus. The method is based on neutron activation and averasi requires a source of neutrons; a range of different sources can be used.

A nuclear aberasu An actinide such as californium which emits neutrons through spontaneous fission. A D-T fusion reaction in a gas discharge tube. The basis for elemental analysis using neutron generators is spectral analysis of gamma rays produced by nuclei which have been activated by absorption of neutrons. There are anerasi major types of nuclear reactions that are used in elemental analysis.

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Aberasi kromosom Allium cepa

When induced by fast 14 MeV neutrons, gamma rays from these three types of reactions have different temporal characteristics. This kronosom may be exploited by using pulsed neutron generators and appropriate timing of detector circuitry. Prompt Inelastic scattering reactions n, n’g produce gamma rays when a neutron is scattered by a target nucleus.

There is no delay in the emission of krokosom gamma ray. The gamma ray energy is characteristic of the scattering nucleus. Pulsed neutron generators operating at approximately 10, Hz pulsing frequencies are suitable for these measurements. The spectroscopy system is gated to accept only those gamma rays produced during the neutron pulse s.

The detectors are gated off between neutron pulses. Inelastic scattering reactions are also the basis for elemental imaging using the Associated Particle Imaging API technique. When 14 MeV neutrons are produced by the D-T reaction, an associated 3. A time of flight system determines the time between the detection of the alpha particle and the recording of the gamma ray by a photon detector such as a NaI scintilator.

Aberasi kromosom Allium cepa

This time difference determines the distance traveled by the neutron before interacting with the element and producing lromosom gamma ray. Since the gamma rays are characteristic of individual elements, both the chemical composition and spatial distribution of the elements are simultaneously generated.

Detection of the associated alpha particle requires qberasi an alpha detector be built into the neutron tube. This addalah stringent requirements on the alpha detector material in that it must withstand the temperatures used in processing the neutron tube without introducing contaminants into the tube. Gamma rays are produced by radiative capture reactions n, g when a fast neutron is thermalized and absorbed by the target nucleus.

The time characteristic of the appearance of these gamma rays is the time necessary to thermalize fast neutrons from the generator.

Analyses based on gamma rays from radiative capture reactions are performed using a pulsed neutron source and gating the spectroscopy system to accept signals produced after the pulse s for a time period characteristic of the neutron thermalization time of the matrix of interest. This measurement depends upon the fact that a neutron burst decays much more rapidly in saline waters than in petroleum. Reactions that produce long half life activation products a few seconds or more are aberzsi basis for fast neutron activation analysis FNAA.

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The most important application is the analysis of oxygen content in a wide variety of matrices including metals, geologic materials, coal, liquid kromodom, and ceramic materials. Determination of nitrogen content in biological materials, including nitrogen as a measure of protein content as well as nitrogen determination in fertilizers, explosives, and polymers are important applications.

Fast neutron activation analysis is normally done using high yield, continuous output neutron generators such as the A However, both short and long half life activation products may be analyzed using pulsed neutron generators and gating the spectroscopy system to reject signals from prompt inelastic scattering and radiative capture reactions.

Analisis sitogenetik merupakan satu proses yang melibatkan analisis bilangan serta rupa bentuk kromosom sel yang diperiksa melalui tisu badan. Keabnormalan kromosom yang memaparkan ciri-ciri CML Leukemia mielogenus kronis boleh di kesan melalui penggunaan teknik yang lain. Penghibridan in situ pendarfluor FISH merupakan salah satu cara untuk mengenal pasti nukleus yang mengandungi kromosom yang bernisbah 9: Mutasi kromosom sering terjadi karena kesalahan meiosis dan sedikit dalam mitosis.

Aneuploidi adalah perubahan jumlah n-nya. Aneuploidi dibagi menjadi 2, yaitu: Aneusomi adalah perubahan jumlah kromosom. Penyebabnya adalah anafase lag peristiwa tidak melekatnya beneng-benang spindel ke sentromer dan non disjunction gagal berpisah. Jumlah kromosomnya 45 dan kehilangan 1 kromosom kelamin.

Penderita Sindrom Turner berjenis kelamin wanita, namun ovumnya tidak berkembang ovaricular disgenesis. Penderita Sindrom Klinefelter berjenis kelamin laki-laki, namun testisnya tidak berkembang testicular disgenesis sehingga tidak bisa menghasilkan sperma aspermia dan mandul gynaecomastis serta payudaranya tumbuh. Penderita sindrom ini umumnya berwajah kriminal, suka menusuk-nusuk mata dengan benda tajam, seperti pensil,dll dan juga sering berbuat kriminal.

Penelitian di luar negeri mengatakan bahwa sebagian besar orang-orang yang masuk penjara adalah orang-orang yang menderita Sindrom Jacobs. Autosom mengalami kelainan pada kromosom nomor 16,17, atau Penderita sindrom ini mempunyai tengkorak lonjong, bahu lebar pendek, telinga agak ke bawah dan tidak wajar.

Applications of Elemental Analysis Using Neutron Generators The basis for elemental analysis using neutron generators is spectral analysis of gamma rays produced by nuclei which have been activated by absorption of neutrons. Aneusomi pada manusia dapat menyebabkan: