most Azerbaijanis in Iran referred to themselves as Turks. .. 12 Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi; Heyat, “Regression of Azeri Language.” 13 E.M. 3 M.T. Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi. Ikinci chap (Tebriz: Artun, ). 4 Rahim Rayees-Nia, Azerbaijan dar Seir-e Tarikh-e Iran, 2 vols. (Tabriz: Nima. compared with more than 20 million Azeris in Iran. The two from northwestern Iran to the Caspian Sea in the east M.T. Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi.

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Mass executions of participants, sympathizers, and those suspected of supporting the national movements were performed in public, followed by the burning of turkelrinin, magazines and pamphlets published in ethnic languages.

The Multiple Identities of Azerbaijan

They were witnessing the eradication of their native culture, language, history and heritage on a daily basis. Farixi were required to be assimilated to ‘the superior Indo-European race and culture’; and if they didn’t acknowledge the ‘superiority of Persian Indo-European race’, they would then become subjected to mockery, humiliation, marginaliztion and punishment.

They then issued a list of demands asking for autonomy similar to that of Azerbaijan and Kurdistan. Presumably, such a political organization had existed during the Azerbaijani democratic movement.

I also heard and learned about the struggle of our people for self-determination, for justice, equality, freedom and liberation. The change that ADP leaders introduced was conservative and reformist, not revolutionary and sovereigntist, as the people would have wanted.

Shortly after the revolution however, and more significant, after the consolidation of clerical power, there did not occur any considerable change in the status of either Azeri people or Azeri language. Now in full control over the destiny of the people, he had all the resources at his disposal to enforce his racist ideology. Soon, pamphlets and magazines began to circulate in Azeri language, accompanied by hitherto forbidden folkloric songs, dances, literary gatherings, wearing of indigenous clothing, and so forth.

While sending observers to the Azerbaijan parliament, the Kurds maintained their distinct identity and insisted on the independence of the Kurdish Republic. As a direct result of the war, Iran was invaded by the Soviet and British forces; the Pahlavi regime’s oppressive military was curtailed, and Iran’s dictator, Reza Shah Pahlavi was deposed and forced to exile.

The totalitarian and dictatorial regimes in Europe as well as in various parts of Asia, Africa and the Middle East had to remobilize their forces and focus their attention to the external threat posed by the war. In the course of less than one year, the Democratic Government was able to lay the foundation of a modern educational system in Azerbaijan.


They were not encouraged to be proud of who they were, because according to the dominant ideology, their heritage and culture were nothing to be proud of! The United States of America’s non-combat forces arrived in see also Lenczowski, Being an experienced revolutionary and journalist, Pishevari was aware of the extent of explosive conditions in Azerbaijan.

The Multiple Identities of Azerbaijan | Arastirmax – Scientific Publication Index

A labor code was introduced which limited the work to eight hours a day, introduced minimum wages, forbade child labor, acknowledged trade unions, recognized 1st of May as a national holiday, and established the right of the workers to social benefits ADP, Soon after, he centralized power and authority in Tehran, terminated the semi-autonomous status of Azerbaijan and Kurdistan, banned the usage of all non-Persian languages in any written form, and set out to enforce his Persian racist ideology throughout the country.

Strange Lands and Friendly People. Independent research on the movement was and is banned by both the monarchic and the Islamic regimes, respectively. Qiyam-e Sheykh Mohammad-e Khiyabani der Tabriz. Look at my misfortune My thoughts: Mass executions of participants, sympathizers, and those suspected of sympathizing with the national movements were performed in public, followed by the burning of books, magazines and pamphlets published in ethnic languages.

Without my own knowledge The language of my mother into which I was born was Forbidden The Nineteenth century Azerbaijan is characterized by separation in of northern segment of Azerbaijan and its annexation into Russian Empire. The Army was out of control. On December 12 the provincial National Assembly was formally inaugurated in Tabriz. The world renowned North Azerbaijani poet, Semed Vurghun, recited a poem in World Peace Congress held in Paris, by way of a protest against massacre of Azerbaijani people.

Turk Dili ve Edebiyati Dergisi. They were regarded as subhuman until such time as they openly admitted their inferior Turkish origins and their assimilation into the supposedly superior Persian Aryan race.

Further, the government assured the Azerbaijani people that ‘traitors and reactionaries’ would be purged from the gendarmerie; that a ‘people’s army’ would be formed from local militia groups; and that Azeri-Turkic would be the official language of the state.


Facing no mentionable resistance, the Shah’s army invaded Azerbaijan and savagely massacred its people see also Douglas ; JAMI After suppression of Azerbaijan, the neighboring Kurdish Republic was brutally attacked and conquered. The rapid deterioration in socio-political sphere, coupled with the destructive impact of 8-year Iran-Iraq war, came to play a major role in determining the nature of future struggle. And when the oppressed peoples of Azerbaijan and Kurdistan needed their leaders the most, the leaders turned their back on the people and by announcing their surrender, opened the gates of the republics esii the irna army.

Soldiers ran riot, looting and plundering, taking what they wanted. It left a brutal mark on the people. As a result, the speedy election of the new Majlis was vitally important for the Russians.

When the Persian Army returned to Azerbaijan, it came with a roar. Lack of democracy coupled with unbearable lingual inequality and systemic discrimination against non-Persians came to play a very central role in the demise of Pahlavi dynasty in Iran.

The invading army stayed in Azerbaijan for five years, continuing the persecution of ADP supporters. In a short period of time, the Khiyabani movement was able to gain the support of Azerbaijani people, disarm the central government’s forces, and declare Azerbaijan an autonomous republic called Azadistan or The Land of Freedom Taqiyeva ; Azari The Persian chauvinistic propaganda, along with a relentless campaign against the democratic movements continued.

What are those gallows? And all this because the leaders of ADP had chosen turklerinn Soviets’ trade and security considerations over the independence and autonomy of their own people and their own Republic!

The achievements, experiences, and failures of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic have become a source of learning and understanding that provide invaluable lessons for a fresh start. Fawcett’s Iran and the Cold War: On 16 Februarythe National Assembly of Garixi passed two important Bills regarding the land reform. Throughout his military career as a Cossack trooper, Reza Khan had never hidden his hatred for non-Persian Iranians. The Iranian Crisis of Institution Press, Standford University: