: Differend: Phrases in Dispute (Theory and History of Literature) ( ): Jean-Francois Lyotard: Books. This original study examines Jean-François Lyotard’s philosophical concept of the differend and details its unexplored implications for literature. it provides a. Expressing the Inexpressible: Lyotard and the Differend Jacob M. Held Marquette University Department of Philosophy Coughlin Hall P.O. Box
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The principle of legitimation functioning in capitalism is efficiency or performativity [see The Postmodern Condition], and this principle attempts to be hegemonic.
Postmodern science is about the generation of new ideas rather than the efficient application of existing knowledge. University of Minnesota Press, T he inherent structure of language is, as such, necessarily oppressive.
There are many theories of postmodernism in the arts, literature, architecture, and other areas of cultural practise. The turn from the libidinal to the pagan and the postmodern continued a concern with events and the limits of representation, but concerned two key changes: In this sense, paganism can be xifferend of as a plurality of rules of judgement godsas opposed to belief in just one rule or set of rules God.
Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology suggests diffeernd we experience the world on a pre-cognitive level as ambiguous and somewhat chaotic sense data which must be synthesized by the perceiving subject in order to structure the world in a meaningful way. The Assassination of Experience by Painting, Monory, trans. Of course all phras es, obviously, do not function in the same way. Or, Lyotard could assign to philosophy the role of opening societal communication to hitherto excluded or ‘ostracized’ language games.
Every phrase differwnd a universe, composed of the following four elements or, as Lyotard calls them, instances: All this I saw wiped out. Like difefrend other particular kind of knowledge, e. Differrend offer a solution, therefor e, is to occupy the position of the victim and address the problem from within t he dominant genre of discourse, the very discourse that lead to the differend in the first place.
He lyptard why, if humanism is correct that there is a human nature, we are not born human but rather have to go through a terroristic education in order to become acceptably human. His thought remains pivotal in contemporary debates surrounding philosophy, politics, social theory, cultural studies, art and aesthetics. Either he could accept that certain forms of discourse will always be in a position of dominance in relation to others, and hence restrict the work of philosophy to a ceaseless project of bearing ‘witness’ to lyogard inter ests and ends On his view, the postmodern is that which exists within the modern itself.
Lyotard presents the logic of the double bind involved in the differend in general as follows: Postmodern Conditionxxiii—xxiv.
Jean-François Lyotard: “Le Différend,” Part One | Art History Unstuffed
He calls this threat “terrorism”: Lyotard’s main reason for rejecting pagani sm is that he himself recognizes that in order to adjudicate between competing c laims one requires a way to determine which statement is more justified than the others. One continually navigates throughout the language community choosing those phrases that best, although inadequately, express difgerend in an attemp t towards some sense of progress.
Events always exceed interpretation; there is always something “left over” that an interpretation does not account for. Lyotard’s main criticism of representation in the libidinal philosophy is that it is nihilistic. Furthermore, Lyotard’s insistence that the freeing of dissimulated libidinal forces can only be passively done and not actively controlled is motivated by his identification of wilful acts with the organisational subject.
As distinguished from a litigation, dfiferend differend would be a case of conflict, between at least two parties, that cannot be resolved for lack of a rule of judgement applicable to both of the arguments. Lyotard’s answer is – performativity. Lyotard does not believe that there is any easy answer. If one recognizes that a wrong has been done, then one is to b ear witness to the violence.
For this reason, both books will be critiqued as being irresponsibly anarchist. Every event is to be understood as a phrase in the philosophy of the differend. He sees the performativity criterion as applying not just to science, technology, and capital, but to the State as well. In the postmodern philosophy events are analyzed as phrases, and again Lyotard asserts that events exceed representation in that no representational system can account for all phrases.
Jean François Lyotard
Nevertheless there are rules followed within phrase regimens such that certain phrases are allowable while others are not. However, the lack of a grand narrative, or recognized hegemonic discour se diffsrend creates myriad problems for communication.
This requires new rules for the formation and linking of phrases. Lyotard and the Differend.
Thus, obviously, all terror, annihilation, massacre, etc. His writings in this period are solely diffefend with ultra-left revolutionary politics, with a sharp focus on the Algerian situation the war of independence had broken out in Representational theory is itself a libidinal dispositifand Lyotard accentuates the libidinal aspects of theory in order to combat its nihilistic tendencies.
Postmodern science, however, does not function according to a legitimation by performativity precisely because it undermines determinism. Lyotard is here beginning to describe a region on which libidinal intensities take place and on which they meet digferend the dispositifs that channel libidinal energy.
However, both of these solutions appear to contradict some aspect of Lyotard’s philosophy. Lyotard calls such claims into doubt through his thesis that events exceed representation. Such performativity merely subordinates science to capital. This is what Lyotard calls legitimation by paralogy. These phrase regimes have no outside criteria for comparison.
In the libidinal philosophy Lyotard uses the idea of libidinal energy to describe events and the way they are interpreted or exploited, and he develops a diffdrend of society and theory in terms of the economy of libidinal energies. Postmodern art has a political importance for Lyotard, since it can call attention to differends through the feeling dfiferend the sublime, showing us that a differsnd has been done.
La guerre des Algeriens: Who or what uttered the phrase, and to whom? This notion of linkages is important.